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Summary Details


Query:   Prenominal Modifiers
Author:  Yosuke Miyata
Submitter Email:  click here to access email
Linguistic LingField(s):   Semantics
Syntax

Summary:   I SHOW THE RESULT OF THE SURVEY BELOW:

QUESTION A:

''YES'' ''NO'' ''?''
(1) A. DEPARTING GUESTS 7 0 0
B. FALLING LEAVES 7 0 0
C. BOILING WATER 7 0 0
D. A RUNNING BOY 7 0 0
E. ADVANCING SOLDIERS 7 0 0
F. A SINGING LARK 7 0 0
G. A DANCING GIRL 7 0 0
H. INCREASING RELUCTANCE 7 0 0
I. A DYING SOLDIER 7 0 0
J. A ROTTING TABLE 7 0 0
K. A BARKING DOG 7 0 0
L. A GROWING BOY 6 1 0
M. THE SMOKING VOLCANO 7 0 0
N. A SLEEPING BABY 7 0 0
O. A BURNING HOUSE 7 0 0
P. PLAYING CHILDREN 7 0 1
Q. RETURNING VACATIONERS 7 0 0
R. THE COMING TRAIN 3 3 1
S. THE GOING TRAIN 1 7 0
T. THE WALKING MAN 4 0 3

(2) A. THE LYING MAN 1 4 1
B. THE STANDING MAN 4 2 1
C. THE STOPPING CAR 1 3 3
D. THE ARRIVING GUEST 3 1 3
E. THE ARRIVING GUESTS 6 0 1

(3) A. THE BREATHING MAN 4 0 3
B. THE QUICKLY BREATHING MAN 6 0 1
C. THE EATING CHILDREN 1 4 2
D. THE GREEDILY EATING CHILDREN 4 0 3
E. THE READING MAN 2 3 2
F. THE LOUDLY READING MAN 4 3 0

(4) A. A DRINKING MAN 5 1 1
B. SMOKING MOTHERS 5 1 1
C. THE DRINKING CATTLE 4 1 2

(5) A. A LOOKING MAN 0 7 0
B. A DROWSY-LOOKING MAN 7 0 0
C. A SMELLING MIXTURE 0 7 0
D. A FOUL-SMELLING MIXTURE 6 1 0
E. A PRODUCING WELL 2 4 1
F. AN OIL-PRODUCING WELL 5 2 0
G. THE SPEAKING PEOPLE 1 4 2
H. THE ENGLISH-SPEAKING PEOPLE 5 2 0
I. THE BOOK-READING MAN 4 3 0

(6) A. A STEALING MAN 1 5 1
B. A QUICKLY-STEALING MAN 2 5 0
C. A SKILLFULLY-STEALING MAN 1 6 0
D. A REACHING BOY 1 5 1
E. A QUICKLY REACHING BOY 2 5 0
F. THE CRUSHING CAR 1 5 0
H. THE FALLING BOY 6 1 0
I. THE QUICKLY-FALLING BOY 6 1 0

(7) A. THE WRITING BOY 1 3 3
B. THE SKILLFULLY WRITING BOY 2 4 1
C. THE TYPEWRITING BOY 2 3 2
D. THE DEVOURING CHILDREN 2 4 1
E. THE DEVOURING MAN 2 4 1
G. THE GASPING BOY 7 0 0


AS FOR QUESTION B, TWO PEOPLE'S ANSWERS WERE UNAVAILABLE, BUT I FOUND THAT
MOST OF THE RESPONDENTS JUDGED THAT ALMOST ALL THE EXAMPLES COULD NOT HAVE
GENERIC MEANING. I JUST SHOW SOME EXAMPLES THAT GOT MORE THAN TWO POSITIVE
ANSWERS:

(1) G. A A DANCING GIRL
(4) A. A DRINKING MAN
B. SMOKING MOTHERS
(5) F. AN OIL-PRODUCING WELL

FROM THE RESULT OF A, I CAN SAY THAT ALMOST ALL THE PURELY INTRANSITIVE
VERBS (THAT DO NOT TAKE AN OBJECT IN DEFAULT) CAN PREMODIFY THE HEAD NOUN
IN ''-ING'' FORM AS THE LITERATURE SAYS. AS FOR TRANSITIVE VERBS, IT IS SAID
THAT THEY CANNOT TAKE ''-ING'' FORM BEFORE THE HEAD NOUN WITHOUT A CERTAIN
ADVERBIAL, BUT THIS IS NOT NECESSARILY THE CASE AS THOSE IN (6).

MY FURTHER RESEARCH IS TO EXAMINE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EACH COMPONENT
IN ''-ING + N'' CONSTRUCTION TO EXPLICATE WHAT IS IMPOSED ON THIS FORM.

I THANK THOSE WHO ANSWERED THE QUESTIONS.

LL Issue: 16.394
Date Posted: 09-Feb-2005
Original Query: Read original query