Interdental /l Part 2
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Query, Re: (Linguist 15.1675) Sum Part 1, Re: (Linguist 15.1836)
Sum: Interdental /l Part 2
Interdental laterals also occur in the Italian dialects of Calabria (M. Loporcaro e A. Mancuso, Interdentale ma anche laterale: /l prevocalica nei dialetti della (Pre)Sila, in P. M. Bertinetto e L. Cioni (a cura di), Unit? fonetiche e fonologiche: produzione e percezione, Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore 1998, pp.77-90).
Professor Loporcaro was kind enough to supply a hard copy of the paper, which can be very briefly summarised as follows: Interdental /l (transcribed as IPA voiced (inter)dental fricative symbol edh with superscript l) has been recorded in three towns (Casole, S. Giovanni in Fiore, Bisignano) within an area east of Cosenza in Southern Italy which shows [DH] realisations of Latin singleton /l in pre- and intervocalic positions. The interdental realisation has not been remarked upon in previous literature.
Loporcaro and Mancuso (1998: 80) describe the articulation as involving a neutral position of the tongue body, with the tongue tip protruded between the teeth (they refer to a brushing motion in the articulation, presumably as the tongue tip is withdrawn). Airflow occurs on either side of the medial constriction and there is some light and barely perceptible frication.
Acoustically, interdental /l has a low F1 (300-380 Hz) with F2 between 900 and 1050 Hz where visible. Higher formants are not consistently visible. Frication is light. Loporcaro and Mancuso (1998: 81) attribute the low F2 in the interdental lateral relative to geminate non-interdental /l either to the larger lingual cavity arising from the interdental articulation, or due to velarisation. The latter explanation is excluded by a kineasthetic study of one speaker from Casole, but Loporcaro and Mancuso remark that no detailed articulatory studies have been conducted. Relatively low F2 provides an acoustic parallel to dark laterals (cf. American English interdental
, the presence of dark laterals in neighbouring Italian dialects). An acoustic quality of darkness seems likely to have played a part in the diachronic development of these sounds, whether the low F2 is attributable to velarisation/pharyngealisation or to a larger oral cavity (or both). Interdental /l seems to crop up due to coarticulation to interdental /TH in Castillian Spanish (see http://www.unibuc.ro/eBooks/filologie/spaniola/2.htm#2623), and Jim Fidelholtz and Rudy (see below) also reported this possibility for words like 'health'. My own interdental /TH (apparently the minority realisation for British English speakers) coarticulates to my (dental)
, not the other way round.
To conclude: this realisation of /l occurs in some people's speech as an idiosyncrasy, perhaps mainly for dark coda and syllabic
's , and in Calabrian dialect. It may also occur after speech therapy or as an exaggerated realisation of
. It occurs in Hawai'i and the two respondents who claimed to use it in 'normal speech' were both from the West Coast. The possibility that this is a native feature for Britney Spears and Reese Witherspoon, both from Louisiana, cannot be discounted. Whether it is a truly regional feature is impossible to say on the basis of this very limited data, but it could be. It seems there is much still to learn about this.
My thanks to all who took the time to contribute: Probal Dasgupta, Alice Faber, James L. Fidelholtz, Paul Foulkes, Clyde Hankey, Roger Lass, Brook Danielle Lillehaugen, Michele Loporcaro, Miriam Meyerhoff, Bruce Mor?n, Kati Pederson, Nick Pharris, Mark Sharp, Zach Wolff, and Rudy, whose full name and affiliation I managed to delete while compiling this summary. My apologies and thanks. Mark J. Jones Department of Linguistics University of Cambridge.
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