EDITOR: Hartmann, R. R. K. TITLE: Lexicography SUBTITLE: Critical Concepts VOLUME: 3 SERIES: Critical Concepts in Linguistics PUBLISHER: Routledge (Taylor and Francis) YEAR: 2003
Niladri Sekhar Dash, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India
[This is the third part of a three-part review. -- Eds.]
PURPOSE OF THE BOOK
The third volume contains 24 papers divided into three broad divisions. Part 7 (Typological Perspectives) refers to the difficulties that arise when we try to classify dictionaries by various criteria predefined for the simplification of the task (8 chapters). Part 8 (Structural Perspectives) highlights numerous ways in which information of various types are structured and incorporated within dictionary (7 chapters). Part 9 (Interdisciplinary Perspectives) refers to the close overlapping interface observed between lexicography in one part and other disciplines on the other (9 chapters).
CONTENT OF THE BOOK
Chapter 47 contains "Towards a general theory of lexicography" written by Lev V. Shcherba. This reprint and translated version appeared in International Journal of Lexicography. Vol. 8. No. 4. Pp. 314-350 (1995).
Chapter 48 contains "A typological classification of dictionaries on the basis of distinctive features" written by Yakov Malkiel. The article first appeared in F. W. Householder and S. Saporta (Eds.) (1962) Problems in Lexicography. Pp. 3-24. Bloomington IN: Indiana University Research Center for Language and Semiotic Studies.
Chapter 49 contains "The typology of pedagogical dictionaries" written by Petr N. Denisov. The article was first published in P. N. Denisov and V. V. Morkovkin (1977) Problems of Pedagogical Lexicography. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Mosk. Univ. Pp. 23-42. (Translated by Victoria Punchuk for this reprint 2002)
Chapter 50 contains "Historical dictionaries" written by Reuven Merkin. The article first appeared in R. R. K. Hartmann (ed.) (1983) Lexicography: Principles and Practice. Pp. 123-133. London: Academic Press.
Chapter 51 contains "EFL dictionaries: Past achievements and present needs" written by Anthony P. Cowie. It first appeared in R. R. K. Hartmann (Ed.) (1984) LEXeter'83 Proceedings. Pp. 155-164. Tubingen: Niemeyer.
Chapter 52 contains "Author concordances, with special reference to Shakespeare" written by Olga M. Karpova. This is an updated version of "Lecture at Exeter Workshop on Reference Science", 1996.
Chapter 53 contains "Describing a new lexicographic hybrid: the encyclopedic learner's dictionary" written by Martin P. Stark. This contains extracts from Chapter 1 and the Conclusion from Encyclopedic Learners' Dictionaries: A study of their design features from the user perspective. Tuebingen: M. Niemeyer (Updated by the author with modified title).
Chapter 54 contains "Bilingualism as a genre" written by Gregory C.A. James. It is taken from Gregory C.A. James (2000) Colporul: A History of Tamil dictionaries. Pp. 450-458. Chennai: Cre-A.
Chapter 55 contains "L'énonce lexicographique: l'article de dictionnaire" written by Jean Dubois and Claude Dubois. It is taken from Jean Dubois and Claude Dubois (1971) Introduction à la lexicographie: le dictionnaire. Pp. 39-48. Paris: Librairie Larousse. (It is not known why this particular paper is kept in French without translating while all other paper are translated.)
Chapter 56 contains "Pronunciation keys: principles, practices, performances" written by Robert H. Secrist. It first appeared in D. Hobar (Ed.) (1982) Papers of the Dictionary Society of North America 1977. Pp. 32-40. Terre Haute: Indian State University and DSNA.
Chapter 57 contains "Methods of ordering senses within entries" written by Barbara A. Kipfer. The article first appeared in R. R. K. Hartmann (Ed.) (1984) LEXeter'83 Proceedings. Pp. 101-108. Tubingen: Niemeyer.
Chapter 58 contains "Definitions and explanations" written by Patrick Hanks. The paper is taken from J.M. Sinclair (ed.) (1987) Looking Up: An Account of the COBUILD Project. Pp. 123-136. London: Collins ELT.
Chapter 59 contains "Component parts and structures of general monolingual dictionaries: a survey" written by Franz J. Hausmann and Herbert E. Weigand. It was first published in F. J. Hausmann et al. (Eds.) (1989) Wörterbüche/Dictionaries: An International Encyclopedia of Lexicography. Vol. I. Pp.328-360. Berlin: W. de Gruyter.
Chapter 60 contains "The rise and development of modern labels in English dictionaries" written by Frederic G. Cassidy. The paper was first published in Dictionaries. Journal of the Dictionary Society of North America. 18:97-112 (1997).
Chapter 61 contains "Mediostructures in bilingual LSP dictionaries" written by Sandro Nielsen. It first appeared in Lexicographica International Annual. 15:90-113. (1999).
Chapter 62 contains "Lexicography of as applied linguistics" written by Hans H. Meier. This is an updated version of the article appeared in English Studies 50. Pp. 141-151 (1969).
Chapter 63 contains "The ideal dictionary, lexicographer and user" written David Crystal. The paper first appeared in R. F. Ilson (Ed.) (1986) Lexicography: An Emerging International Profession. Pp. 72-81. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Chapter 64 contains "Terminology and lexicography: their complementarity" written by Fred W. Riggs. The paper first appeared in International Journal of Lexicography. 2(2): 89-110, (1989).
Chapter 65 contains "Lexicomputing and the dictionary of the future" written by W. Steven Dodd. The article is taken form G. James (Ed.) (1989) Lexicographers and Their Works. Pp. 83-93. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Chapter 66 contains "How pictorial illustrations interact with verbal information in the dictionary entry: a case study" written by Werner Hupka. This is a translated and updated version of the article appeared in Werner Hupka (1989) Wort und Bild: Die Illustrationen in Wörterbüchern und Enzyklopädien. Pp. 235-244. Tuebingen: M. Niemeyer.
Chapter 67 contains "Chinese and Western metalexicography" written by HUANG Jianhua. The paper is taken from L. Flowerdew and A. K. K. Tong (Eds.) (1994) Entering Text. Pp. 228-238. Hong Kong: HKUST Language Centre.
Chapter 68 contains "Reference books from Cuneiform to computer" written by Bill Katz. The paper is obtained from Bill Katz (1998) Cuneiform to Computer: A History of Reference Sources. Pp. 1-18. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press.
Chapter 69 contains "What then is reference science?" written by Tom McArthur. It is obtained from Tom McArthur (1998) Living Words, Language, Lexicography and the knowledge revolution. Pp. 215-222. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Chapter 70 contains "Methods in dictionary research" written by Reinhard R. K. Hartmann. It is collected form R. R. K. Hartmann (2001) Teaching and Researching Lexicography. Pp. 110-125. Harlow: Longman/Pearson Education.
In chapter 47 (pp. 11-50) Lev V. Shcherba makes a systematic attempt to place dictionary into a more general meta-lexicographic framework in which 'reference works' have already occupied their places of dignity and distinction. To establish her proposition, the author designs a scheme of network in terms of six rather abstract oppositions: normative (or standard-descriptive) dictionary vs. informative (reference) dictionary, encyclopedic-technical dictionary vs. general-language dictionary, thesaurus-concordance dictionary vs. ordinary-explanatory dictionary, ordinary-alphabetic dictionary vs. ideological-thematic dictionary, definitional dictionary vs. translating dictionary, non-historical dictionary vs. historical dictionary. No doubt, the scheme is powerful enough to encompass the wide range of varieties we usually find in dictionaries. Yet, we are slightly doubtful if this scheme is able to include all the varieties of dictionaries developed so far over the centuries.
In chapter 48 (pp. 51-69) Yakov Malkiel makes some sincere attempts to impose order on an assortment of about 500 Spanish dictionaries. The means to this end is a set of criteria based on three bundles of characteristic features. The first one is 'range' that refers to the issues like measurement density of lexical entries, number of languages involved, extent of concentration on lexical data, etc. The second one is 'perspective' that refers to the factors like timescale, order of arrangement, level of tone, etc. Finally, the third one is 'presentation' that addresses issues like definition technique, verbal documentation, graphic illustrations, and the presence of special features like abbreviations, phonetic transcription, labeling, localization, etc. According to the author, "the classificatory schema here advocated is so flexible as to be readily adaptable to all but an inconsequential percentage of lexical compilations" (p. 68). However, we are not sure if this scheme of categorization is able to address the ethical and legal issues (Landau 2001) involved with dictionary developments.
In chapter 49 (pp. 70-89) Petr N. Denisov offers an application of Shcherba's typology to the classification of pedagogical dictionaries. He first evaluates Shcherba's article "Towards a general theory of lexicography" (1940) against those of other authorities such, as Malkiel, Quemada and Zgusta and then identifies the main problem areas (i.e. basic types of dictionaries, the unity of the lexical system in dictionary, the interrelation between the spoken and the written language, the meaning and usage of words, and the vocabulary). Next, he makes a critical evaluation of what sorts of dictionaries may be appropriate for different groups of learners. Finally, he sums up that a general typology of dictionaries should take into account the following factors (p.87): (a) sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic parameters (i.e. categories of users, aims of the dictionary, psychological and sociological features of the user), (b) linguistic parameters (i.e. how the lexical system of the language is reflected: single-purpose, multipurpose, (or combined) and complex (or universal) dictionaries), and (c) semiotic parameters (i.e. word-list, structure of entry (definition, synonyms, antonyms, pictures, collocations, citations, etc.), cross-reference apparatus of the dictionary. Readers are urged to keep open mind about which type of dictionary may work best for which type of users.
In chapter 50 (pp. 90-100) Reuven Merkin traces the slow progress of the major historical dictionary projects to the mid-1980s against the background of early nineteenth-century etymological dictionaries and famous philologist-lexicographers like James Murray and Jacob Grimm. Although some of these dictionary projects are completed with the assistance of modern computer technology, many of them are still lingering around or lying still unfinished. He refers to some of the 20th century historical dictionaries, which are completed in Denmark, USA, and USSR. Also he identifies nearly eighteen dictionary projects, which are in progress. Finally, he refers to some factors (e.g. sacrifice some of traditional characteristics, substitution of parts of the semantic subdivision of the entry, use of multipurpose concordance, and taking advantage of computing facilities), which need to be taken care of for the acceleration of the projects.
In chapter 51 (pp. 101-111) Anthony P. Cowie makes a survey on the ways about the state of the art of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) dictionaries. Here he pays special focus on the features as the treatment of grammatical codes and collocational information, distinction between 'decoding' or passive comprehension and 'encoding' or active production, and the importance of text cohesion and pragmatic force. Quite rationally, the author is anxious to know "whether our existing headword conventions can satisfactorily handle the many and varied cases in which word meanings are determined by restricted lexical contexts; whether the elucidation of meaning in entries for determiners and connectives calls for examples spanning several sentences; and what conventions need to be developed for representing the pragmatic force of conversational formulae" (p. 110). It can be, however, mentioned here that further progress has been achieved in this direction within last few decades after the emergence of two new perspectives in dictionary compilation: 'pedagogical lexicography' and 'corpus linguistics'.
In chapter 52 (pp. 112-123) Olga M. Karpova critically examines the theory and practice of 'author lexicography'. Starting from the sixteenth century English 'hard word' (McDermott 2002) dictionaries and Bible concordances, she roams through the large-scale and computer generated indexes and lexical databases to the works of specific authors. Finally, she proposes new typology of concordances that emerges from the survey of English writers' concordances (Karpova 1994). It works on three major criteria: corpus, citation and label. In all these cases, concordances will be 'complete' and 'differential' although they may exhibit slight differences among themselves due to the variation of the content of the texts on which the lists are made. The bibliography includes a list of Shakespeare concordances.
In chapter 53 (pp. 124-134) Martin P. Stark exemplifies an interesting double hybrid, the combination of the learner's dictionary with the encyclopedic dictionary. This 'cross-breeding' has led to the development of encyclopedic learners' dictionaries such as the 'Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture' (1992) and the 'Oxford Advanced Learner's Encyclopedic Dictionary' (1992). The author explains these dictionaries in terms of the information categories treated and their potential usefulness for the needs of their buyers. Also, he recommends nearly nine features (p. 129-30) that should be considered at the time of production of encyclopedic learners' dictionary. The author is quite optimistic about its future if this new genre is able to take advantage of electronic multimedia to turn itself into computerized dictionary with encyclopedic content as have been the case with the 'Longman Web Dictionary'.
In chapter 54 (pp. 135-146) Gregory C.A. James deals with another hybrid dictionary type known as 'bilingualized dictionary'. He highlights various instances of the formula 'headword + definition in the same language + gloss in a different language' are given, with special reference to English and Tamil. In contrast with the traditional bilingual dictionary (which dispenses with definitions and concentrates on translation equivalents for the different senses of the headword), the bilingualized dictionary offers partial or complete translations of entries, including the original definitions, as in the 'Oxford Advanced Learner's English- Chinese Dictionary' (1984). Gregory James distinguishes three sub-types of the genre, the 'learners' dictionary', the 'teaching dictionary' and the 'learning dictionary', according to the degree of interlingual adaptation for the benefit of Tamil learners of English.
In chapter 55 (pp. 157-169) Jean Dubois and Claude Dubois analyze the dictionary entry (article) and its constituent parts. Eight such categories are distinguished in addition to the headword: pronunciation, grammar, etymology, definition, examples(s), idiomatic phrases, technical senses and encyclopedic information. Some specific problems are then outlines, and the text concludes with eight arguments why their solutions in the Dictionnaire du francais contemporian (1967) could be considered exemplary. Unfortunately, against the practice of the volume as well the series this is the only paper, which is kept in French, without translating it in English. This may create trouble for them who do not know French but want to know the content of the paper. Like other papers this should have been included in the volume after it is translated.
In chapter 56 (pp. 170-181) Robert H. Secrist deals with the problem of representing pronunciation -- one of the most obvious information categories treated in the general monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. The author attempts nothing less than a critical evaluation of the various practices of handling phonetic information in six American college dictionaries since Webster's Third New International Dictionary (1961) and asks whether a "moderate, sensible and above all rational approach to symbolization in pronunciation keys" is feasible (p. 179).
In chapter 57 (pp. 182-190) Barbara A. Kipfer addresses the question that has occupied dictionary makers, critics and users alike is whether the presentation of meaning or more specifically, the varying senses of the headwords listed in a dictionary, should follow consistent principles. The author summarizes the various possibilities of arranging senses in order: by 'usage' or statistical frequency, by '(psycho)logical' or semantic criteria, or by 'etymology' or historical sequence. She concludes that these are often in conflict, even within single dictionaries, and therefore should be used in combination, supported by computer-assisted corpus evidence.
In chapter 58 (pp. 191- 206) Patrick Hanks is concerned with the new strategies designed to help lexicographers do the job of explaining, and users understanding, the meanings(s) of English words and phrases. Each entry consists of paragraphs containing a discursive explanation of each of the senses of the headword, and each explanation is in two parts, the definiendum in a defining clause (e.g. "A brick is "), and the definiens in a specifying phrase (e.g. "a rectangular block used for building walls"). Hanks then show how this method (which works differently for verbs, nouns, and adjectives) is superior to traditional defining styles, particularly when it is supposed by text corpus evidence, in that it can show learners typical, ordinary and 'productive' patterns of usage.
In chapter 59 (pp. 207- 254) Franz J. Hausmann and Herbert E. Weigand address the issues of components and structures of the prototypical general dictionary. The intricacies of and relationships between the 'macrostructure' (roughly of the word list) and the 'microstructure' (roughly of the entry) are explained, and other structural elements as distinguished in the General Introduction in Volume I (such as megastructure or 'textual book structure' as well as others such as 'access structure', 'information types', 'addressing' and 'outside matter') are comprehensively surveyed, classified and exemplified by reference to three languages of the encyclopedia. The authors ask for a theory of 'diasystematic labelling' of temporally, regionally, stylistically, attitudinally and otherwise marked usages.
In chapter 60 (255- 169) Frederic G. Cassidy presents a critical overview of labeling practices, starting with the realization that 'languages are never homogeneous' and documenting progress in the codification of language variety in lexicography, from the diffusion of Latin and the emergence of the various European vernaculars to the more or loess principled use of labels in Johnson's, Webster's and Murray's dictionaries of English. However, Cassidy says little about the twentieth century, and leaves open the issue of how labeling could be further improved by a more comprehensive theoretical framework as discussed in Nori (2000).
In chapter 61 (pp. 270-294) Sandro Nielsen deals with another still relatively under-researched topic namely 'mediostructure', or the system of cross-references inside a dictionary. The author shows that bilingual technical dictionaries that intend to present complex culture-specific information appear to need an elaborate apparatus (of such external devices as grammatical abbreviations, usage labels and relational logos) to allow internal and external links for various purposes, for example to support comprehension, to distribute information, and to assist production/translation. Often gains for the lexicographer must be balanced by the costs for the user.
In chapter 62 (pp. 307- 318) Hans H. Meier makes the point that linguistically-oriented (today we would say 'metalexicographic') theory can inform and improve lexicographic practice, for example, in the arrangement of the word-list, the semantic sub-division of entries, and the relative status of etymology, grammar and lexicology. In fact here Meier expands his argument that addresses the case for replacing the skeptical love-hate relationship between linguists and lexicographers by more sensible attitude of constructive give and take.
In chapter 63 (pp. 319- 327) David Crystal starts with an instructive parallel: how is Chomsky's 'ideal speaker-writer' model relevant to our understanding of the dichotomy writer and user? Is it sufficient to talk vaguely about potential 'competence'? The ideal dictionary must be both comprehensive in coverage thorough in treatment, and to achieve these ideals, we need more empirical data (probably from corpus) on what constitutes better lexicographers as well as better users. The case has thus been made for applying psycholinguistics to the field of lexicography.
In chapter 64 (pp. 328-350) Fred W. Riggs argues that both the fields of lexicography and terminography are complementary in the sense that there is an underlying interface between the two fields. By contrast with the semasiological approach of lexicography (from word to meaning), terminology onomasiologically proceeds from concepts to terms. This distinction is basic and determines the working methods of lexicographers and terminologists but can, unfortunately, also lead to misunderstanding. Riggs demonstrates the usefulness of terminological principles by applying them to the solution of one lexicographic problem, viz. the set of synonymous terms for the concept 'multiword lexical unit'.
In chapter 65 (pp. 351- 362) W. Steven Dodd argues for the potential benefit of linking the work of lexicography with language corpus access, computerized word-processing, and data manipulation. He discusses four types of software, which had begun to help improve the traditional paper/print dictionary and herald a new generation of electronic dictionary, machine-readable dictionary and fully electronic reference works, which may well constitute a dynamic service rather than a static product. Both the search for information categories and the way they are displayed are becoming more user-friendly, even 'personalized'. This scope of customization of dictionaries and other reference materials can probably invoke revolutionary change in the realm of language education and language information access.
In chapter 66 (pp.363-390) Werner Hupka acknowledges the contribution of art and graphic technology (i.e. visual illustrations) to the fields of dictionary making, reference materials designing, language teaching, and translation, which have been appreciated centuries ago. In this paper Hupka distinguishes nine basic types of visual illustration (i.e. single illustrations, enumerating illustrations, sequential illustrations, structural illustrations, functional illustrations, terminological illustrations, scenic illustrations, diagrams, exemplary illustrations) used exclusively for nouns included in dictionaries. Next, he exemplifies them from important dictionaries of French, English and German. He also includes selected extracts and fugues from entries to substantiate his propositions and arguments.
In chapter 67 (pp. 391-404) HUANG Jianhua attempts briefly to present recent Chinese achievements in metalexicographical studies and makes a preliminary comparison between Chinese and Western research in this area. Against the background of the long established lexicographic tradition of China, the author surveys the metalexicographic achievements in terms of specialized reviews, establishments of societies and associations, publications of monographs in lexicography, national symposia or colloquia, lexicography research centers and university courses in lexicography. Finally, he gives specific details on some of the main topics treated in the literature, and concludes with some reference to its strengths and weaknesses.
In chapter 68 (pp. 405- 421) Bill Katz provides a lively historical overview of both 'library science' and 'reference sources', from preliterate reliance on word-of-mouth authority and marginal manuscript glosses to today's IT-assisted libraries. Starting with the age of difference he covers the Greek history of reference works, Renaissance period, and from the Renaissance to the twentieth century and beyond. In way of discussion, he shows how alphabetic order and thematic taxonomies have been as important in the development of new genres of reference works as printing, scientific enlightenment, democratic government and industrialization. The number of specialized reference sources is constantly rising, but massive information loads do not always guarantee factual accuracy and objective knowledge. This has been instrumental behind the establishment of academic and public reference services.
In chapter 69 (pp. 422- 428) Tom McArthur presents the case for a 'reference science' that would overarch such activities as internet links, associations of lexicographers and metalexicographers, as well as teaching and research activities concerned with "the study of all aspects of organizing data, information, and knowledge in any format whatever, for any purpose whatever, using any materials whatever" (p. 424). A wider framework like this might then cope with the current limitations in the criticism, history, typology, and structure of reference works and will allow more interdisciplinary contacts to develop in the process.
In chapter 70 (pp. 429-444) Reinhard R. K. Hartmann believes that contact and hybridization rather than isolation and purity should be the norms in the world of lexicography, since the more hybridization of the field more has its chance to grow and flourish. Therefore, he pleads for open boundaries to let insights through which might be missed by those stuck inside disciplinary confines. The methodological tools of dictionary research still need sharpening; they depend on the nature and purpose of the inquiry. Links should be sought and cultivated with 'mother', 'sister' and 'daughter' disciplines, whatever and wherever they may be.
Part 4 (chapter 47-54) beautifully illustrates the difficulties that arise when we make efforts to classify dictionaries by various criteria related to size, coverage, format, data collection, information layout, target users, user requirements, languages involved, etc. We also observe a tension here between the generalized effort to explain diversity and the specific account of a particular (new or hybrid) type of reference work.
Part 8 (chapter 55-61) is particularly concerned with the issues of structural representation of linguistic information of various types (entry words, sub-entry, spelling, pronunciation, definitional meaning, grammar, etymology, usage, synonyms, idioms, citation, etc.) within a dictionary. The seven chapters included in this part deal with many of these issues from structural view point revealing how systematic presentation of the information makes a dictionary highly useful for the target users. If we (as compilers and users) are able to understand how lexicographic information works, we can present and access it more efficiently.
Part 9 (chapter 62 to chapter 70) is devoted to the exploration of issues within the wider context of lexicography to be considered as a 'reference science'. The lexicographer, as a reference scientist, is expected to have much understanding of the principles and methods of dictionary making, not only within the realm of traditional lexicography but also of those disciplines which often builds up relational interdependence with it. In fact, not a single subject of human knowledge can ignore the importance of lexicography fir its overall growth and development. Similarly, lexicography, for its maturity as a field of reference science, cannot probably deny its debt to other disciplines.
Hartmann, R. R. K. (Ed.) (1983) Lexicography: Principles and Practice. London: Academic Press.
Hartmann, R. R. K. (2001) Teaching and Researching Lexicography. Harlow: Longman/Pearson Education.
Ilson, R. F. (Ed.) (1986) Lexicography: An Emerging International Profession. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
James, G. (Ed.) (1989 Lexicographers and Their Works. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Karpova, Olga M. (1994) Dictionaries of Shakespeare's Language: Historical- Typological Research. Ivanovo: Ivanovo State University.
Landau, S. I. (2001) Dictionaries: The Art and Craft of Lexicography. 2nd Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McArthur, Tom (1998) Living Words, Language, Lexicography and the knowledge revolution. Exeter: University of Exeter Press.
Norri, Juhani (2000) "Labelling of derogatory words in some British and American dictionaries". International Journal of Lexicography. 13(2):71- 106.
Sinclair, J. M. (Ed.) (1987) Looking Up: An Account of the COBUILD Project. London: Collins ELT.
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
Dr. Niladri Sekhar Dash works in the area of corpus linguistics and corpus- based language research and application at Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, India. His research interest includes corpus linguistics, lexicography, lexicology, and lexical semantics. His recent book (Corpus Linguistics and Language Technology, New Delhi, Mittal Publications, 2005) has addressed, besides other things of corpus linguistics, the issue of corpus use in lexicographic works in Indian languages. Presently he is working on corpus-based dictionary making, lexical polysemy, and corpus- based machine translation in Indian languages.