Language Evolution: The Windows Approach addresses the question: "How can we unravel the evolution of language, given that there is no direct evidence about it?"
The LINGUIST List is dedicated to providing information on language and language analysis, and to providing the discipline of linguistics with the infrastructure necessary to function in the digital world. LINGUIST is a free resource, run by linguistics students and faculty, and supported primarily by your donations. Please support LINGUIST List during the 2016 Fund Drive.
Date: Sat, 26 Feb 2005 21:36:36 +0200 From: Andrew Wilcox Subject: Situational Context of Education
AUTHORS: Brisk, Maria Estela; Burgos, Angela; Hamerla, Sara Ruth TITLE: Situational Context of Education SUBTITLE: A Window into the World of Bilingual Learners PUBLISHER: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates YEAR: 2004
Andrew Wilcox, Pinewood International School, Thessaloniki
Educational outcomes are affected by situational factors outside the control of the student, family, teacher or school. Advantages are enjoyed by students who, for instance, speak the school's language outside school, are of higher socio-economic status, belong to the dominant ethnic group, live in safe neighbourhoods, and attend well-funded schools. The converse applies. The central idea of Situation Context of Education (SCE) is that, while teachers and students may be powerless to change the situation within which they teach and learn, both groups can benefit from increasing their conscious awareness of that situation.
The book is intended as course material for the post-graduate, pre-service training of teachers, particularly those who will have responsibility for the English language development of children who start English-medium education speaking other languages. It is also intended for serving teachers who seek development. There are reports of the observation of lessons in an upper elementary school, conducted with students of non- English backgrounds, as well as background information, and analysis. An aim is very clearly to provide a resource for teachers: things they can do in the classroom. Such pedagogic procedures, though, will be informed by research into and observation of the context of education. For linguists, the possible area of interest could be described as applied sociolinguistics, since, given its audience and theme, SCE concerns such matters as language policy, language alternation, and language use in the community. Most of the aspects of the "situational context" have to do directly or indirectly with language.
The core of the book, chapters 2 through to 6, deals with five kinds of situational variation in the context in which education occurs: linguistic, economic, social, cultural and political. Each of these chapters follows the same four-part structure: a) Overview and introduction to the variables or themes. b) Part I: A report of a three-lesson sequence as taught. c) Part II. Background and literature review. d) Part III. Further analysis and lesson plans/ideas on the themes from the chapter.
(The academic who would be happier reading the review before the empirical work should simply read Part II after the overview.) The lessons reported are part of a larger project on experimenting with "situational context", awareness-raising lessons. The learners are Spanish speakers, and the teacher, one of the authors, is English-Spanish bilingual.
Chapter 2, entitles "Linguistic Context", looks mostly at language use, choice, alternation and societal function. The lessons reported in Part I seek to develop students' understanding of when, where and how much they use different languages, and the possibility that language proficiency is a function of amount of use and of feelings towards the language. The brief review of "Linguistic Variables" in Part II covers only what is needed to understand the rationale of the teaching procedures presented, and is directed at teachers in training who have studied no linguistics.
The subject of chapter 3 is how economic factors, such as a school's financial resources, affect opportunities and outcomes in education. There is also the matter of the possible career benefits of being bilingual in the modern world; this is the subject of the lesson sequence reported. Students are led to value their own language, alongside English, as a possible future advantage in the job market.
The social context of education is the subject of chapter 4. This includes such variables as the social status of languages, social history (e.g. immigration movements), and the demographic profile of a local society by language and ethnicity. The last of these is examined in the lessons reported. As in other lessons, the teacher begins with simple, answerable questions with important answers: "What is the largest language, after English, spoken in Massachusetts?", "Which country is very near (to the USA)?". Over the three-lesson sequence, students develop the ability to ask interesting questions of an informant, resident locally and a long- standing immigrant: "What kind of races were there?", "Did the laws change?", "Would you like to live somewhere else?", "Was the neighbourhood dangerous or not dangerous?".
Chapter 5 looks at culture, in the sense of beliefs, expectations and practices shared within an identifiable group. In our current context, this means, for instance, teaching styles, learner expectations of school, and differences in school systems.
Chapter 6 tackles politics, including international relations. Decisions made in state or national capitals affect teaching and learning. The worlds of government and administration, though, are remote from those of elementary schoolchildren. The lessons reported attempt to connect these worlds. For instance, learners look at the effects of international political relations on ethnic group status, such as that of Japanese people in the 1941-45 and the 1990s.
Apart from the standard academic bibliography, there is, as an appendix, an annotated bibliography of about 90 books, mostly fiction, that explore themes of migration and cultural contact and conflict. These are arranged into two broad reading and maturity levels: Elementary to Middle, and Middle to Secondary. The intention is to provide suggestions for intensive class study or for more extensive reading by students around the general theme.
Ethically speaking, this book has its heart right in the right place. It is taken for granted that bilingualism must mean additive bilingualism. The presence in schools of people who speak a language other than the dominant one is a challenge and an opportunity, not a problem. The opportunity for schools is to produce citizens who are at home in two languages in wide, if not necessarily identical, ranges of fields, with benefits both for society and for the bilingual individual. I think all linguistically and socially aware teachers make this same assumption: thus the tendency to replace the possibly stigmatising phrases "Limited English Proficiency" and "English as a Second Language" with "English Language Learners" and "English as an Additional Language" (EAL). However, as SCE points out in Chapter 6 and elsewhere, the additive assumption is far from general outside the linguistic and educationalist communities. Political decisions that determine funding for programmes may be influenced by a popular feeling that there is something "wrong" with speaking a language other than the official or unofficial national language. Bilingualism may be seen as divisive to the nation, or cognitively disadvantageous to the child. (See Oller 1997 for one review and refutation of this latter idea.) Perhaps more reasonably in some circumstances, good provision for English language learners may be seen as a burden on already over-stretched school budgets (SCE chapter 5: 56-57). SCE's main point here seems to be that if the advantages of additive bilingualism are realised, then these will at least be taken into account when funding decisions are made. We might not then see attempts to make drastic reductions in funding for bilingual education, such as California's Proposition 227 (SCE: p.163).
There are a few minor difficulties with production standards. Proofreading could have been more thorough, from a major academic publisher. In a randomly chosen text sequence (pp. 57-59), I counted two singular/plural errors and three missing commas (before a non-finite participle clause and enclosing a parenthetical relative clause). On page 203, "31/2" probably means "three and a half years". The index could have been fuller. While checking the page number at the end of the previous paragraph of this review, I could find no relevant entry for "California", "language policy", "immersion", "Proposition 227", nor "English-only".
The book summaries in Appendix A sometimes seem to assume that a happy ending to a story is achieved when a young person becomes an American and/or is recognised as an American by peers, and others. Not everyone would agree with this rather nationalistic assimilationism. Nevertheless, the book-list should be of use. While such a list can never be complete, as many teachers would have something to add to it, as it stands it looks useful for EAL or language arts teachers, and for librarians, in bi- or multi-cultural schools.
Enough of quibbles: this interesting and competent work meets the vital criteria of relevance and utility to its target audiences. Pedagogically, it follows accepted good practice, in the USA and the UK at least: the students' need to know is provoked, and then they find the answers. Teachers and books are organisers, informants and resources, not single authorities. The lesson reports seem honest, and the suggested procedures are always sound, sometimes innovative. "Research" is can be found these days as a strand or activity type in school curricula. Some of the lessons in SCE will help teachers to appreciate how learners, even young learners, can be researchers. Anyone who wonders what it might mean to "teach linguistics at school" will find some enlightenment here, though the lesson on "the Nature of Languages" (pp.36-39) is in fact sociolinguistic in content (and valuable). It might have been interesting to see lessons that explored more "purely" linguistic matters, perhaps some basic typology such as "SVO or other" (mentioned on page 25), or the matters of pro-drop or object pronoun placement. Some language learners benefit from overt contrastive analysis of syntax. Still, it could be argued that even simple typology would be better left for the middle school level.
The lessons presented or suggested will need adaptation to the particular teaching situation of the reader. The observed lessons were conducted with a 5th-Grade group of 13-18 students who shared a language with their bilingual teacher. Older, larger, smaller or linguistically diverse groups would require different implementations. This is not a criticism of the book. A teacher should be capable of such flexibility, and SCE provides information and inspiration for teachers wishing to improve their students', and their own, awareness of the contexts within which schooling occurs.
Oller, J. .W, Jr. 1997. 'Monoglottitis: What's wrong with the idea of the IQ meritocracy and its racy cousins?' Applied Linguistics 18/4: 467-507
ABOUT THE REVIEWER:
ABOUT THE REVIEWER
Andrew Wilcox teaches English as an Additional Language and English (language arts) at Pinewood International School, Thessaloniki, Greece. His doctoral studies in second language vocabulary acquisition are in indefinite suspension for lack of time and funds. One of his interests is the finding of ways to give recognition to the languages and cultures of a very diverse student body despite the limited resources of a small independent school.