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Language Planning as a Sociolinguistic Experiment

By: Ernst Jahr

Provides richly detailed insight into the uniqueness of the Norwegian language development. Marks the 200th anniversary of the birth of the Norwegian nation following centuries of Danish rule


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Acquiring Phonology: A Cross-Generational Case-Study

By Neil Smith

The study also highlights the constructs of current linguistic theory, arguing for distinctive features and the notion 'onset' and against some of the claims of Optimality Theory and Usage-based accounts.


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Language Production and Interpretation: Linguistics meets Cognition

By Henk Zeevat

The importance of Henk Zeevat's new monograph cannot be overstated. [...] I recommend it to anyone who combines interests in language, logic, and computation [...]. David Beaver, University of Texas at Austin


Academic Paper


Title: 'Detecting Errors in English Article Usage by Non-native Speakers'
Author: Na-RaeHan
Institution: 'University of Pennsylvania'
Author: MartinChodorow
Institution: 'Hunter College'
ClaudiaLeacock
Institution: 'ETS Technologies'
Linguistic Field: 'Computational Linguistics; Language Acquisition; Syntax'
Subject Language: 'Chinese, Mandarin'
' Japanese'
' Russian'
Abstract: One of the most difficult challenges faced by non-native speakers of English is mastering the system of English articles. We trained a maximum entropy classifier to select among a/an, the, or zero article for noun phrases (NPs), based on a set of features extracted from the local context of each. When the classifier was trained on 6 million NPs, its performance on published text was about 83% correct. We then used the classifier to detect article errors in the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) essays of native speakers of Chinese, Japanese, and Russian. These writers made such errors in about one out of every eight NPs, or almost once in every three sentences. The classifier's agreement with human annotators was 85% (kappa = 0.48) when it selected among a/an, the, or zero article. Agreement was 89% (kappa = 0.56) when it made a binary (yes/no) decision about whether the NP should have an article. Even with these levels of overall agreement, precision and recall in error detection were only 0.52 and 0.80, respectively. However, when the classifier was allowed to skip cases where its confidence was low, precision rose to 0.90, with 0.40 recall. Additional improvements in performance may require features that reflect general knowledge to handle phenomena such as indirect prior reference. In August 2005, the classifier was deployed as a component of Educational Testing Service's Criterion Online Writing Evaluation Service.

CUP at LINGUIST

This article appears in Natural Language Engineering Vol. 12, Issue 2, which you can read on Cambridge's site or on LINGUIST .



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