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Speaking American: A History of English in the United States

By Richard W. Bailey

"Takes a novel approach to the history of American English by focusing on hotbeds of linguistic activity throughout American history."


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Language, Literacy, and Technology

By Richard Kern

"In this book, Richard Kern explores how technology matters to language and the ways in which we use it. Kern reveals how material, social and individual resources interact in the design of textual meaning, and how that interaction plays out across contexts of communication, different situations of technological mediation, and different moments in time."


Academic Paper


Title: Writing and Writing Behavior
Author: Lafi M. Alharbi
Email: click here TO access email
Institution: Kuwait University
Linguistic Field: Applied Linguistics
Abstract: This paper analyses writing and writing behavior. In the light of contemporary drift of sociolinguistics, an attempt is made to assess : (1) writing as a cognitive behavior; (2) elements of contrast between speech and writing; (3) the role of writing as medium of communication; (4) writing environment; (5) progress of writing; (6) amalgamation of writing, criticism and creativity; and finally (7) constituents of 'good' writing. /L//L/A cognitive theory of writing differs from the traditional paradigm. Writing is treated traditionally as a linguistic product. In contrast, a cognitive model of writing, as advocated by Flower & Hayes (1981), is constructed as follows. (1) "The process of writing is best understood as a set of distinctive thinking processes which writers organize during the act of composing" (p.366). (2) These processes are arranged hierarchically into a network whereby one process is implanted into another. (3) Each act of writing is goal-oriented thinking process which is guided by the overall network of goals. (4) Writers generate and regenerate their goals as they experience composing./L//L/There is no writing if there is no message. Thus, composing is triggered when relevant ideas and data emerge. They, however, are usually indexed according to the order in which they arise and received. Ideas and data, then, are to be rearranged to comply with the rhetorical intention. Arrangements and rearrangements of data and ideas perpetuate in a developmental fashion until final text is assembled, and hence the rhetorical goal is fulfilled. /L/Composing operates at different levels such as; word, sentence, paragraph and text level. The writer engages his linguistic and cultural experience at all levels. Text production processes--the most lengthy and complex of all--involve; (a) selection of lexical, grammatical and stylistic patterns; (b) building sentences and paragraphs; and (c) revision and editing. The later--which includes constant monitoring, revision and final editing--is a repetitive process, which is necessarily utilized in every stage of composing. Composing stages though absorbed in the process of writing are characteristically distinct behaviors.
Type: Individual Paper
Status: In Progress


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