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It's Been Said Before

By Orin Hargraves

It's Been Said Before "examines why certain phrases become clichés and why they should be avoided -- or why they still have life left in them."

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Sounds Fascinating

By J. C. Wells

How do you pronounce biopic, synod, and Breughel? - and why? Do our cake and archaic sound the same? Where does the stress go in stalagmite? What's odd about the word epergne? As a finale, the author writes a letter to his 16-year-old self.

Academic Paper

Title: An expectation-based account of subject islands and parasitism
Author: Rui Pedro Chaves
Email: click here TO access email
Institution: University at Buffalo
Linguistic Field: Pragmatics; Syntax
Abstract: Subject phrases impose particularly strong constraints on extraction. Most research assumes a syntactic account (e.g. Kayne , Chomsky , Rizzi , Lasnik & Saito , Takahashi , Uriagereka ), but there are also pragmatic accounts (Erteschik-Shir & Lappin ; Van Valin , ; Erteschik-Shir , ) as well as performance-based approaches (Kluender ). In this work I argue that none of these accounts captures the full range of empirical facts, and show that subject and adjunct phrases (phrasal or clausal, finite or otherwise) are by no means impermeable to non-parasitic extraction of nominal, prepositional and adverbial phrases. The present empirical reassessment indicates that the phenomena involving subject and adjunct islands defies the formulation of a general grammatical account. Drawing from insights by Engdahl () and Kluender (), I argue that subject island effects have a functional explanation. Independently motivated pragmatic and processing limitations cause subject-internal gaps to be heavily dispreferred, and therefore, extremely infrequent. In turn, this has led to heuristic parsing expectations that preempt subject-internal gaps and therefore speed up processing by pruning the search space of filler–gap dependencies. Such expectations cause processing problems when violated, unless they are dampened by prosodic and pragmatic cues that boost the construction of the correct parse. This account predicts subject islands and their (non-)parasitic exceptions.


This article appears IN Journal of Linguistics Vol. 49, Issue 2.

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