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The Social Origins of Language

By Daniel Dor

Presents a new theoretical framework for the origins of human language and sets key issues in language evolution in their wider context within biological and cultural evolution


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Preposition Placement in English: A Usage-Based Approach

By Thomas Hoffmann

This is the first study that empirically investigates preposition placement across all clause types. The study compares first-language (British English) and second-language (Kenyan English) data and will therefore appeal to readers interested in world Englishes. Over 100 authentic corpus examples are discussed in the text, which will appeal to those who want to see 'real data'


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Academic Paper


Title: The Effect of Gender and Status on the Apology Strategies Used by American Native Speakers of English and Iraqi EFL University Students
Paper URL: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/RHSS/article/view/4420
Author: Ahmed M. A. Abu Humeid
Email: click here to access email
Institution: University of Babylon
Linguistic Field: Applied Linguistics
Subject Language: English
Abstract: In fact, apology varies from one language to another. Thus, teachers and EFL learners must discern the similarities and the differences between their native language and the target one because what is deemed right in one language may not be considered right in the other. No study is conducted to compare apology strategies of Iraqi EFL university students along with that of the American native speakers of English in terms of gender and status. Therefore, the present study will explore these issues in order to clarify them. As such, a discourse completion test has been designed and applied to Iraqi EFL university students and Americans native speakers of English. The results show that Iraqi EFL male learners use more strategies with people of higher level, while the American males use more strategies with people of lower position. Moreover, unlike the Americans, Iraqi females use more apology strategies than Iraqi males.
Type: Individual Paper
Status: Completed
Publication Info: International Institute for Science, Technology & Education2013Page: 30 P.Vol X, No.X, 2011www.iiste.org
URL: http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/RHSS/article/view/4420


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