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A comprehensive history of slang in the English speaking world by its leading lexicographer.


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Academic Paper


Title: Vocal Effort Levels In Anechoic Conditions
Paper URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V1S-52M3GW4-1-1&_cdi=5682&_user=735571&_pii=S0003682X11000685&_origin=gateway&_coverDate=04%2F13%2F2011&_sk=999999999&view=c&wchp=dGLzVtz-zSkzS&md5=9c55afa17453069061ed60ce8eff457f&ie=/sdartic
Author: Ian Cushing
Email: click here to access email
Institution: Surbiton High School
Author: Francis F Li
Email: click here to access email
Institution: University of Salford
Author: Trevor J Cox
Email: click here to access email
Homepage: http://www.acoustics.salford.ac.uk/profiles/cox/
Institution: University of Salford
Author: Ken Worrall
Author: Tim Jackson
Linguistic Field: Phonetics
Abstract: This paper presents statistical data on vocal effort levels in anechoic conditions from 50 British English speakers. Extending and rectifying the broadly quoted work carried out by Pearsons et al in 1977 with American English speakers, the current work stipulates five vocal effort labels: hushed, normal, raised, loud and shout using a set of more precise descriptors with an aim to (1) avoid ambiguity and mis-interpretation of these effort levels, (2) extend the Pearsons' dataset to include a hushed speech level, which is demanded for the investigation of speech intelligibility and privacy, and (3) validate Pearsons' dataset with native British English speakers. In addition, the statistical data also shows a high level of correlation between peak levels and equivalent continuous levels, providing a useful means to estimate speech levels in the presence of non-trivial background noise.
Type: Individual Paper
Status: Completed
Publication Info: Applied Acoustics; Volume 72; Issue 9; Pages 695-701
URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B6V1S-52M3GW4-1-1&_cdi=5682&_user=735571&_pii=S0003682X11000685&_origin=gateway&_coverDate=04%2F13%2F2011&_sk=999999999&view=c&wchp=dGLzVtz-zSkzS&md5=9c55afa17453069061ed60ce8eff457f&ie=/sdartic


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