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The Vulgar Tongue: Green's History of Slang

By Jonathon Green

A comprehensive history of slang in the English speaking world by its leading lexicographer.


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The Universal Structure of Categories: Towards a Formal Typology

By Martina Wiltschko

This book presents a new theory of grammatical categories - the Universal Spine Hypothesis - and reinforces generative notions of Universal Grammar while accommodating insights from linguistic typology.


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Academic Paper


Title: Second- And Foreign-Language Variation in Tense Backshifting in Indirect Reported Speech
Author: Krassimira D. Charkova
Institution: Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Author: Laura J. Halliday
Institution: Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Linguistic Field: Applied Linguistics; Language Acquisition
Subject Language: English
Abstract: This study examined how English learners in second-language (SL) and foreign-language (FL) contexts employ tense backshifting in indirect reported speech. Participants included 35 international students in the United States, 37 Bulgarian speakers of English, 38 Bosnian speakers of English, and 41 native English speakers. The instrument involved speech scenarios in two time settings-immediate and delayed report-and questions about the participants' reasons for backshifting tenses or not. The results revealed that FL environments foster the acquisition of backshifting as an automatically applicable grammatical rule, whereas SL contexts facilitate awareness of pragmatic and semantic aspects of tense backshifting.

CUP at LINGUIST

This article appears in Studies in Second Language Acquisition Vol. 33, Issue 1, which you can read on Cambridge's site or on LINGUIST .



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