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It's Been Said Before

By Orin Hargraves

It's Been Said Before "examines why certain phrases become clichés and why they should be avoided -- or why they still have life left in them."

New from Cambridge University Press!


Sounds Fascinating

By J. C. Wells

How do you pronounce biopic, synod, and Breughel? - and why? Do our cake and archaic sound the same? Where does the stress go in stalagmite? What's odd about the word epergne? As a finale, the author writes a letter to his 16-year-old self.

Academic Paper

Title: Second- And Foreign-Language Variation in Tense Backshifting in Indirect Reported Speech
Author: Krassimira D. Charkova
Institution: Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Author: Laura J. Halliday
Institution: Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Linguistic Field: Applied Linguistics; Language Acquisition
Subject Language: English
Abstract: This study examined how English learners in second-language (SL) and foreign-language (FL) contexts employ tense backshifting in indirect reported speech. Participants included 35 international students in the United States, 37 Bulgarian speakers of English, 38 Bosnian speakers of English, and 41 native English speakers. The instrument involved speech scenarios in two time settings-immediate and delayed report-and questions about the participants' reasons for backshifting tenses or not. The results revealed that FL environments foster the acquisition of backshifting as an automatically applicable grammatical rule, whereas SL contexts facilitate awareness of pragmatic and semantic aspects of tense backshifting.


This article appears IN Studies in Second Language Acquisition Vol. 33, Issue 1.

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