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The Language Hoax

By John H. McWhorter

The Language Hoax "argues that that all humans process life the same way, regardless of their language."


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Language and Development in Africa

By H. Ekkehard Wolff

Language and Development in Africa "discusses the resourcefulness of languages, both local and global, in view of the ongoing transformation of African societies as much as for economic development.. "


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Academic Paper


Title: Second- And Foreign-Language Variation in Tense Backshifting in Indirect Reported Speech
Author: Krassimira D. Charkova
Institution: Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Author: Laura J. Halliday
Institution: Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Linguistic Field: Applied Linguistics; Language Acquisition
Subject Language: English
Abstract: This study examined how English learners in second-language (SL) and foreign-language (FL) contexts employ tense backshifting in indirect reported speech. Participants included 35 international students in the United States, 37 Bulgarian speakers of English, 38 Bosnian speakers of English, and 41 native English speakers. The instrument involved speech scenarios in two time settings-immediate and delayed report-and questions about the participants' reasons for backshifting tenses or not. The results revealed that FL environments foster the acquisition of backshifting as an automatically applicable grammatical rule, whereas SL contexts facilitate awareness of pragmatic and semantic aspects of tense backshifting.

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This article appears IN Studies in Second Language Acquisition Vol. 33, Issue 1, which you can READ on Cambridge's site or on LINGUIST .



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