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A History of the Irish Language: From the Norman Invasion to Independence

By Aidan Doyle

This book "sets the history of the Irish language in its political and cultural context" and "makes available for the first time material that has previously been inaccessible to non-Irish speakers."


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The Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics

Edited By Keith Allan and Kasia M. Jaszczolt

This book "fills the unquestionable need for a comprehensive and up-to-date handbook on the fast-developing field of pragmatics" and "includes contributions from many of the principal figures in a wide variety of fields of pragmatic research as well as some up-and-coming pragmatists."


Academic Paper


Title: Second- And Foreign-Language Variation in Tense Backshifting in Indirect Reported Speech
Author: Krassimira D. Charkova
Institution: Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Author: Laura J. Halliday
Institution: Southern Illinois University Carbondale
Linguistic Field: Applied Linguistics; Language Acquisition
Subject Language: English
Abstract: This study examined how English learners in second-language (SL) and foreign-language (FL) contexts employ tense backshifting in indirect reported speech. Participants included 35 international students in the United States, 37 Bulgarian speakers of English, 38 Bosnian speakers of English, and 41 native English speakers. The instrument involved speech scenarios in two time settings-immediate and delayed report-and questions about the participants' reasons for backshifting tenses or not. The results revealed that FL environments foster the acquisition of backshifting as an automatically applicable grammatical rule, whereas SL contexts facilitate awareness of pragmatic and semantic aspects of tense backshifting.

CUP AT LINGUIST

This article appears IN Studies in Second Language Acquisition Vol. 33, Issue 1, which you can READ on Cambridge's site or on LINGUIST .



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