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How Traditions Live and Die

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This book brings together cognitive science and quantitative cultural history to look into the causes of cultural survival.


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The Acquisition of Heritage Languages

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"This work centres on the grammatical development of the heritage language and the language learning trajectory of heritage speakers, synthesizing recent experimental research."


Academic Paper


Title: Language Variation and Change: when
Author: Isamar Coromoto Carrillo Masso
Email: click here TO access email
Institution: Bangor University
Linguistic Field: Anthropological Linguistics; Discourse Analysis; Sociolinguistics
Abstract: When I was four years old, I could already reply to greetings, commands, questions and expressions of affection. I would always say “please” and “thank you” when expected to do so. When somebody said “Good morning” to me, I would reply by saying “Good morning”. When somebody asked “How are you?” I would invariably reply “Fine, thank you”. And, of course, when somebody said “I love you”, I would readily reply “Chupina!”./L/ When I started going to school in a different town I realized that these rules did not apply to other children. The greetings were the same, but the word “love” did not prompt the same answer from them./L/ It was thus that I learnt to have two replies to the same utterance: one that I would always use at home, and one that would be used elsewhere. At home, or rather, when in the company of any member of my family, I would immediately utter the correct reply (“Chupina!”) when faced with the word “love”. When at school, or with strangers, I would choose my reply based on other factors. So did everyone else in my family. /L/ In this paper, I will attempt to explain 1) The meaning(s) of this word and 2) How its use began to spread, specifically in the population of Los Naranjos, near the town of Guarenas, in Venezuela. I will attempt to answer these two questions within the context of sociolinguistics, as an exercise to test a particular research methodology.
Type: Individual Paper
Status: Completed


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