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A History of the Irish Language: From the Norman Invasion to Independence

By Aidan Doyle

This book "sets the history of the Irish language in its political and cultural context" and "makes available for the first time material that has previously been inaccessible to non-Irish speakers."


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The Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics

Edited By Keith Allan and Kasia M. Jaszczolt

This book "fills the unquestionable need for a comprehensive and up-to-date handbook on the fast-developing field of pragmatics" and "includes contributions from many of the principal figures in a wide variety of fields of pragmatic research as well as some up-and-coming pragmatists."


Academic Paper


Title: On Different Types of Output and the Elicitation of Optimal Output
Author: Niu Qiang
Email: click here TO access email
Institution: University of Wisconsin Madison
Linguistic Field: Applied Linguistics
Subject Language: English
Abstract: By differentiating among four different types of output, the paper sees their roles are also different. And learners of different language proficiency should be guided to produce different types of output. Thus the paper introduces a new concept, namely 'optimal output'. Blindly making the learner produce output which is far beyond his current English level will only do harm to his interlanguage development, making it fossilize at an earlier stage.
Type: Individual Paper
Status: Completed
Publication Info: Teaching English in China. Vol.24. No. 1. Jan. 2001.


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