Focusing primarily on Swedish, a Germanic language whose particles have not
previously been studied extensively, Non-Projecting Words: A Case Study on
Swedish Particles develops a theory of non-projecting words in which
particles are morphologically independent words that do not project phrases.
Particles have long constituted a puzzle for Germanic syntax, as they
exhibit properties of both morphological and syntactic constructs. Although
non-projecting words have appeared in the literature before, it has gone
largely unnoticed that such structures violate the basic tenets of X-bar
theory. This work identifies these violations and develops a formally
explicit revision of X-bar theory that can accommodate the requisite "weak"
The resulting theory, stated in terms of Lexical-Functional Grammar, also
yields a novel classification of clitics, and it sheds new light on a range
of recent theoretical proposals, including economy, multi-word
constructions, and the primitives of lexical semantics. At an abstract
level, we see that the modular, parallel-projection architecture of LFG is
essential to the description of a variety of otherwise recalcitrant facts
about non-projecting words.