Matter and Mind in Morphology investigates the nature and place of morphology. The underlying assumption is that morphology can be both lexical and syntactic, and that the distinctive properties of the two types of morphology follow from the nature of the lexicon and the syntax respectively. The human language system is argued to consist of a MATTER-domain and a MIND-domain. The MATTER-domain comprises the syntax as well as the LF and PF modules. Its properties (governing principles, vocabulary, type of categorization) are those commonly assumed in generative linguistics, and operations taking place in this domain are unconscious and fast. The MIND-domain, on the other hand, is a conceptual module where language utterances are matched with a speaker's knowledge of the world. It makes use of semantic notions (thematic roles, features like [+/-human] or [+/-animate] and aspectual notions) and prototype categorization. Processes in this domain are slower and semi-conscious. The lexicon is the interface between the two domains, its main function being the translation of information from one domain into the format of the other. This language model is the basis on which distinctive properties of syntactic and lexical morphology are formulated. In the remaining part of the dissertation, these distinctive properties are used to identify a variety of morphological processes in Dutch as either 'syntactic', 'lexical' or 'mixed'. Since the distinction between lexical and syntactic morphology is primarily relevant in the case of word formation based on verbs, the discussion focuses on deverbal processes deriving nouns, adjectives and verbs.