This book presents a new theory of grammatical categories - the Universal Spine Hypothesis - and reinforces generative notions of Universal Grammar while accommodating insights from linguistic typology.
Russian grammar system is penetrated with the idea of existence. Be-sentences are used for the expression of other categorial meanings such as possession, qualification, space and time localization etc. In fact we can quote Russian dialogues that consist only of Be-sentences. The expansion of Be-meaning and a short review of its studying in Russian forms the content of the first chapter of the manuscript. The second chapter deals with the semantic variety of existential constructions in literary language. It is based upon the functional-semantic approach and includes the analysis of Be-predicate in its grammar variants and the influence of contextual means. Telling somebody about the existence is usually an indirect speech act with a lot of implications. These special usages is the basis of the third chapter. The first two chapters are based on the material of my dissertation that was published as a summary in Russian. More extended variant is prepared for the serie