LINGUIST List 8.16

Wed Jan 15 1997

Qs: English modals, Spanish, Yiddish fonts

Editor for this issue: Susan Robinson <>

We'd like to remind readers that the responses to queries are usually best posted to the individual asking the question. That individual is then strongly encouraged to post a summary to the list. This policy was instituted to help control the huge volume of mail on LINGUIST; so we would appreciate your cooperating with it whenever it seems appropriate.


  1. hiro-t, English modals
  2. Douglas Demo, Spanish for native speakers
  3. Gur, Yiddish language fonts

Message 1: English modals

Date: Tue, 14 Jan 97 15:44:03 JST
From: hiro-t <>
Subject: English modals

Dear Linguists,
 One of my colleagues who have long been intersted in English modals
wants to pose the following query on the List. Please help us.

- -------------------------------------------------------------------

 I am now working on a paper about English modals such as _need_ 
and _have to_. i am interested in negative forms of these modlas.
 A British grammarian writes:
 _Need not_ is used in British English to say that something is not 
necessarily so; _does not have to_ can also be used.

 (1) "Look at those tracks. That must be a dog." "It needn't[doesn't 
 have to] be--It could be a fox.

 These modals are employed in the epistemic sense. I have almost
 no examples like this. Could you please give me some examples 
where _needn't_ or _don't[doesn't] have to_ is used in this sense?

- -------------------------------------------------------------------

 Please e-mail me directly if you have any comments on this problem.
Thanks a lot in advance.

Best wishes,

Hiroaki Tanaka

Associate Professor,
1-1, Minamijousanjima-cho, Tokushima, 770, Japan
Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences,
Tokushima University, Japan
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Message 2: Spanish for native speakers

Date: Mon, 13 Jan 1997 14:21:22 -0500 (EST)
From: Douglas Demo <>
Subject: Spanish for native speakers

Dear linguists,

 I am currently researching courses designed to teach Spanish to
native speakers of Spanish in the US. At the moment I am compiling a
list of names of colleges and universities in the US that have such
courses as part of their curriculum. If your college/university
offers such a course or if you know of one which does please send me a
message at the address below. In addition, any other information
related to this topic would be greatly appreciated. Thanks.

Douglas Demo
Georgetown University
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Message 3: Yiddish language fonts

Date: Sun, 12 Jan 1997 22:45:22 -0700
From: Gur <>
Subject: Yiddish language fonts


Do you know of any Yiddish language fonts or Hebrew fonts containing
additional Yiddish characters that could be used with Microsoft hebrew
Word for Windows?
If you do, please E-mail the information to:
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