LINGUIST List 6.210

Mon 13 Feb 1995

Sum: Citing e-texts

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  1. Jan Tent, citing e-texts summary

Message 1: citing e-texts summary

Date: Mon, 13 Feb 1995 11:01:12 citing e-texts summary
From: Jan Tent <>
Subject: citing e-texts summary


Here is the summary of responses I received in answer to my query about
citing e-texts. Firstly, though, I would like to thank the following
people who kindly sent references and suggestions:

Keith Schultz
Bruce Nevin
Ismail S Talib
Evelyn Todd
Karl Vogel
Helmer Strik
Kristina Harris
Loren Allen Billings
Stavros Macrakis
Golge Citak-Seferoglu
Michael Bernstein
Petur Knutsson
Jane A. Edwards, and
Allan C. Wechsler


Several people supplied the following references:

1. Li, Xia & Nancy B. Crane (1993) _Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing
 Electronic Information_. Meckler (ISBN 0-88736-909-x) Approx. $15.00.

 [This reference seems to be the standard which most scholars
 currently follow]

2. APA STYLE GUIDE Version 1.2, Revised July 14, 1994
 Prepared by Ron Corio ( & Maggi Sokolik

 Adapted from: American Psychological Association. (1983).
 _Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (3rd.
 Ed.)._ Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

3. _The Chicago Manual of Style_ 14th edition (Chicago: The University
 of Chicago Press, 1993), pp. 633-4, 699.

And Loren Allen Billings gives the following reference:

4. _Text Encoding Initiative_. I'm not sure who published it, but it is
 two volumes of everything you want to know about standardizing
 electronic texts. Published in 1993, I believe.

Jane Edwards informs that:

TESL-EJ has prepared an electronic guide to preparing manuscripts according
to APA (American Psychological Association) standards. This guide includes
information on how to cite e-mail messages, online articles, as well as
more traditional references. If you are interested in getting the guide,
send a message to:


The text of the message should be the following line (and nothing more!)



Jane then supplies a section from the TESL Publication Guide:

Note: The following is not a complete listing. If you have a reference or
citation that does not fit the examples given here, please consult one of
the reference works above. If you do not have access to them, contact one
of the authors of this file.


Include a reference list (headed "References") at the end of the TESL-EJ
article that documents your sources and provides the necessary information
to identify and retrieve each source. References must include only the
sources that were used in the research and preparation of the article. A
reference list cites specific works that support a particular article. A
bibliography cites works for background or for further reading. APA
journal style requires reference lists, not bibliographies.

Because of the limitations of ASCII, certain typographical features cannot
be displayed on screen. Underscoring should be indicated by typing an
underscore mark before and after the segment of text to be italicized or
underlined. Example: the journal _Language Learning_,

Diacritical marking, such as umlauts or accent marks, should be omitted. If
the omission of these marks creates ambiguity or possible
misinterpretation, this can be clarified via a footnote or parenthetical

Please note that the examples used in this document are for illustration
only, and should not be used for actual citations. Many are fictional or
partly fictional. Check all your sources carefully.


Citation within the text of a document refers the reader to an alphabetical
reference list at the end of the article. APA format uses the author-date
method of citation. The surname of the author and the date of publication
are inserted at the appropriate point in the text.

A. One work by single author

1. If the name of the author appears in the text, cite only the year
 of publication in the text.

 Shannon's (1989) historical analysis....

2. Otherwise, place the surname of the author and the year of
 publication with a comma separating the two.

 ...lead to successful language learning (Chaudron, 1988).

3. Within a paragraph you need not repeat the references to an author's
 work as long as it cannot be confused with other work cited in the

B. One work by two or more authors

1. When a work has two authors, always use the surnames of both authors
 in all citations. Join the two names by an ampersand (&) within
 parentheses, or by "and" within the text.

 ...or simply ignore it (Hill & Parry, 1988).

2. When a work has 3-6 authors, use the surnames of all authors in the
 first citation. In subsequent citations, include only the surname of
 the first author followed by "et al."

 ...process the text hierarchically (Armbruster, Anderson &
 Ostertag, 1984)....

3. When a work has more than six authors, use only the surname of
 the first author followed by "et al."

 ...on a test with exclusively open-ended questions (Pollit et al.,

C. Works with no authors

When a work has no author, cite the first two or three words of the
reference list entry followed by the year. The first entry is usually the
title. Underline the title of a periodical or book and use double
quotation marks around the title of an article or chapter.

 ...on language use ("World languages," 1992).

 ... in the book (_Language Use_, 1991).

D. Specific parts of a source

To cite a specific part of a source, include the page, chapter, figure,
table, or equation in the citation. The words "page" and "chapter" are
abbreviated in such citations (see Abbreviations).

 ...and rewriting what is read (Freire, 1983, p. 11).


 chap. chapter
 ed. edition
 rev. ed. revised edition
 2nd ed. second edition
 Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
 Trans. Translator(s)
 p. (pp.) page (pages)
 Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
 vols. volumes (as in four volumes)
 No. Number
 Pt. Part
 Tech. Rep. Technical Report
 Suppl. Supplement

Geographical abbreviations: For the U.S., states and territories in the
reference list should use the official two-letter U.S.P.S. abbreviation.
City names and country names should not be abbreviated.

E. Personal communications

Letters, memos, telephone conversations, etc. are not included in the
Reference List, thus are cited in the text only. Include the initials as
well as the surname of the author and provide as exact a date as possible.

 ...according to D.B. Cooper (personal communication, April 15,

F. References in parenthetical material

If a reference appears within parentheses, use commas (not brackets) to
set off the date.

 ...the second level (see Figure 1 of Cowell & Ross, 1992, for full


A. Complete reference list

The reference list should be in alphabetical order by author's surnames.
With names including "de", "von", etc., those names should be alphabetized
according to the rules of the language from which they originate. Each
entry should be indented five spaces from the second line forward, and
there should be a blank line between entries.

B. APA style

1. Periodicals

 Doyle, W. (1977). Learning the classroom environment: An ecological
 analysis. _Journal of Teacher Education, 28_, 51-55.

2. Books

a. Entire books

 Bishop, A. J. & Whitfield, R. C. (1982). _Situations in
 teaching_. London: McGraw-Hill.

b. Article or chapter within a book

 Heath, S. B. (1989). The learner as culture member, In M. L. Rice &
 R. L. Schiefelbusch (Eds.), _The teachability of language_ (pp.
 333-350). Toronto: Paul H. Brookes.

3. Technical and research reports

 Cummins, J. (1981). The role of primary language development in
 promoting educational success for language minority students.
 In California State Department of Education (Ed.), _Schooling
 and language minority students: A theoretical framework_. Los
 Angeles: California State University, Evaluation,
 Dissemination, and Assessment Center.

4. Proceedings of Meetings and Symposiums

 Olson, D. R., & Hildyard, A. (1980). _Literacy and the
 comprehension of literal meaning_. Paper presented at the
 Conference on the Development and Use of Writing Systems,
 Biefefeld, Germany.

5. Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

 Besnier, N. (1986). _Spoken and written registers in a
 restricted-literacy setting_. Unpublished doctoral
 dissertation. University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

6. Unpublished Manuscripts and Publications of Limited Circulation

 Parry, J. (1982). _Popular attitudes towards Hindu religious
 texts_. Unpublished manuscript.

7. Translations and Non-English Text


 Freud, S. (1920). _A general introduction to psychoanalysis_ (J.
 Riviere, Trans.). New York: Pocket Books.

 Non-English Text:

 Raynaud de Lage, G. (1975). _Introduction a l'ancien francais_, (9e
 edition). [_Introduction to Old French_, (9th Ed.)].
 Paris: Societe d'Edition d'Enseignement Superieur.

8. Reviews and Interviews

 Book review:

 Rea, P.M. (1984). [Review of _Issues in Language Testing_ by Charles
 Alderson and Arthur Hughes, eds.]. _Language Learning 34, 3_,

 Published interview:

 Smith, D. (1990). [Interview with Wu Leong]. _English Yesterday 10,
 5_, 57-90.

9. Nonprint Media


 Kirosawa, A. (Director & Producer). (1970). _Dodes 'kaden_ [Film].
 Tokyo: Films Ltd.

 Audio Recording:
 Carter, B. (Speaker). (1977). _The growth of English_. (Cassette
 Recording No. 222). New York: Audio Associates.

10. Electronic Media

 Computer Programs:

 Sandford, J.A. & Browne, R.J. (1985). Captain's log: Cognitive
 Training System (Version 1.0) [Computer program]. Indianapolis:
 Psychological Software Services, Inc.

 Online databases:

 _The educational directory_. [Online]. (1992). Available: Knowledge
 Index File: The Educational Directory (EDUC6).

 FTP or Telnet:

 Kehoe, B.P. (1992). _Zen and the art of the Internet (2nd. Ed.),
 [Online]. Available FTP (or Telnet):
 Directory: pub/etext/1992 File: Zen10.text

 Articles available via e-mail:

 Root, C. (1994). ESL and learning disabilities: A guide for the ESL
 practitioner. _TESL-EJ 1_. Available e-mail:

 To cite e-mail messages:

 General format:

 Author (Year, month day). _Subject of message_
 [e-mail to receiver's name], [Online].
 Available e-mail: receiver's e-mail address.


 Corio, R. (1994, June 1). _APA Guide deadline_
 [e-mail to Margaret E. Sokolik],
 [Online]. Available e-mail:


Far as the location of a citation within an e-text is concerned Keith
Schultz offers the following advice:

 1) mention of context;
 2) character position of beginning within e-text
 3) location given in paragraphs, lines, chapters, etc.

Naturally, these methods are not very effective or feasible for the human
reader, but a human with a computer can very effectively find the given
citations within an e-text within seconds given the above information.

Secondly, as e-text are generally located on mass storage (disks) they can
be directly distributed with your article for reference. And not last but
least the citation itself is a positional marker of the citation within the
text itself if it is sufficiently large enough.

Finally, some noteworthy comments and common sense advice:

Keith also notes: "I would not cite any source without first knowing where
it has come from and its source as it is far to easy to manipulate any
e-text and pass it on without leaving any traces of foul play, other than
it differing from the original."

On this same note, Stavros Macrakis states: "If the provenance [of the e-
text] is not clear, I don't know why you'd want to cite the thing in the
first place! If I give you a half-dozen xerox copies without the necessary
bibliographic information, you would be wise not to rely on them too much!"

And finally an important note on etiquette from Evelyn Todd:

"If you wish to cite an item that you received via [...e-mail lists],
please consider if the posting was public or private and contact its author
for permission to cite. Postings can be considered as published material,
but it is always wise to check with the author before assuming that
widespread dissemination was intended."

[I hope the Evelyn and the other authors of the above comments do not mind
my breaking this rule of etiquette here.]

I hope the information in this summary is of as much use to you all as it
is to me and colleagues.

Thanks again to all those who contributed.

"Moce mada"

Jan Tent
Department of Literature and Language
School of Humanities
The University of the South Pacific
P.O. Box 1168

TEL: (679) 313900 Ext. 2263
FAX: (679) 305053
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