LINGUIST List 5.742

Sun 26 Jun 1994

Sum: Bibliographical Software

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  1. Jon Aske, Sum: Bibliographical Software

Message 1: Sum: Bibliographical Software

Date: Sat, 25 Jun 1994 23:49:58 Sum: Bibliographical Software
From: Jon Aske <>
Subject: Sum: Bibliographical Software

This is a summary of the replies to my query about bibliographic
software on the LINGUIST List (Vol-5-715. Mon 20 Jun 1994. ISSN:
1068-4875) plus additional information that I have been able to
gather from other sources.


1. Conclusions
 a) Good software exists
 b) Few people use it
 c) More people should know about this type of software
 d) Prices vary, don't go by the list price

2. The replies from Linguist readers
 a) Ad hoc solutions (2 ea.)
 b) EndNote (Plus) (DOS/Mac) (4 ea.)
 c) ProCite (DOS/Mac) (2 ea.)
 d) Papyrus (DOS, Mac version on the works) (1 ea.)
 e) Ibid Plus (1 ea.)
 f) BibTex (UNIX) (3 ea.)

3. Reviews of the software
 a) SCHOLAR (Sue Stiglemann)
 b) PC Magazine (10/12/93)

4. Replies from the publishers
 a) EndNote (Plus)
 b) ProCite


a. There are a handful of bibliographical programs or software
 packages out there, not too different from each other, which
 do a superb job of
 (1) keeping track of published sources with powerful
 searching meachanisms. A query could be e.g. "What works are
 there on main clause phenomena in a functionalist perspective
 since 1971?"
 (2) keeping abstracts and/or notes on such publications.
 (2) assembling bibliographies from a manuscript: preparing
 bibliographies for publications from the references in the
 text (assuming they're already in the database). For
 instance, you write in the body of the text Bybee (1988) and
 in the bibliography at the end of the text you see the
 complete reference.

b. Very few people in the Linguist List community seem to be
 taking advantage of such software if we go by the number of
 replies that I received to my query.

c. There are probably a lot of linguists (and other scholars)
 who could benefit from and would probably interested in such
 software if they only knew more about it.

d. List prices range from $99 (for Papyrus) to $395 (for ProCite
 without the programs to download references from online
 databases), but these prices are merely a guideline, the more
 expensive ones seem to offer hefty educational discounts.
 Check with the software provider at your institution. Most
 packages can be installed on a network, something which your
 institution may be interested in doing. (Other list prices:
 EndNote Plus: $249, EndNote (more basic): $149, EndLink: $99;
 Reference Manager: $299, Capture module: $99.)



... [I have used an] ASCII file ..., first on Word for DOS 5 (on
the 286) and now on Winword 6 (on a 486). It's around 2000

I've been very happy with this decision. If you use the simple
database facilities that come with the word processor you can
create a totally flexible database that will sort however you
vwant it to, that is extremely easy to combine with other texts
and that is readily formatted to any bibliographical style. Each
entry is a paragraph. If you wish you can use the normal
separators to set up fields. As you upgrade, your biblio can
easily transfer.

I use various codes to indicate location, and to provide search
characters. For example, I use <s> to indicate that an item is
on my shelves, while an <S> would indicate something was in my
notes file under "S". I use {} to enclose search codes. For
example, I might mark certain entries with {*} and then run a
macro which will pull out all the paragraphs with {*}.

I use a hypercard stack, which is flexible, printable, but
clearly not designed for the purpose. It's difficult to search
for more than one term, for example.


I would suggest that you try out EndNote+ from Niles &
Associates, Inc. I have been using this program for some time and
find it extremely useful and satisfactory. My impression is that
it has a very good standing among scholars all over the world.
There is a Mac and a DOS version.

I use EndNote Plus (for the Mac--but, I believe, also available
on other platforms). It's a very powerful bibliographic tool
which comes with a large number of biblio formats, which can be
customized by the user. End Note works well with certain word
processers as well. It comes with a special plug-in module for
use with Word 5. I don't use Word so I don't know how useful that
is. I suspect from the manual, however, that the module is quite

I use EndNote Plus, with a "Plug-In Module" for WORD on a Mac.
I'm pretty happy with it, but I haven't used any other systems,
so maybe I don't know what I'm missing. My main gripe with it is
that the NOTES field, which I use to make annotated
bibliographies, is a pretty simple text field, so you can't do
much fancy stuff with formatting the annotations, etc.

We use EndNote, which is very flexible, and is available for both
Mac and PC. It can also import from various other biblio
systems. It has a Notes field, but we don't use it. The UCLA
Phonetics biblio now has about 6,000 entries, and is available to
anyone who wants to swap with us.


I think that pro-cite developed by Personal Bibliogrphic Software
Inc. is one of the best bibliography softwares that we can use. I
have used it on Mac for the last two years. It is flexible and
you can customize.

I use ProCite from Personal Bibliographic Services. It prints
fine and also imports directly into several word processor
formats including WordPerfect (which I use). It also has
programs to download from things like ERIC, and I think to
convert other bibliographic formats into its own (though probably
not for Shoebox). And it has a selection of 20 or 30 punctuation
formats which it can use as well as allowing you to define your
own punctuation style if none of the available ones (e.g. APA,
MLA) suit you (you input the data in a standard format, and it
outputs it according to the selected punctuation style). Within
each record there is space for notes and abstract and index
terms, so you can give subject codes to the entries, etc., but I
am not sure it allows for links to comments or notes in other


I have been using a program called Papyrus. It allows you to add
'notecards' to each bibliographic item, and as far as I can
remember without the manual (which by the way is one of the more
enjoyable manuals you'll EVER see!) you can add an unlimited
number and size of these notecards. I would presume its
importing capabilities are good, although I haven't had a chance
to use that feature yet. I'm just beginning my stuff, so I have
only 150 items so far, so I don't know how well it will handle
3000 items, but I would presume just fine. The big selling point
for this system as opposed to most others is the price--$99 (most
of the others that I know of, such as Endnote etc are n the $300


I use Ibid Plus, incorporated in Nota Bene 4.1. Ibid Plus will:

Let you fill in fields with as much information as you like;
Create new templates to customize your entries; Enter
bibliographic information in a number of ways in the text with
just a couple of keystrokes; Create--in seconds if short, in a
couple of minutes if long--automatically formatted bibliographies
of works cited; Search your files of bibliographical entries by
keyword(s), date, author, whatever you choose. And much, much
more. At present Ibid Plus handles Greek, Cyrillic, Hebrew, all
Western and Eastern European languages, although not always
smoothly. A new version is in the works, intended to solve all
bugs in handling the 2000+ characters available.

For extensive note-taking, there's N.B. Orbis, "an integrated,
indexed text search and retrieval database". I haven't used it
much, but those who have say it's marvelous. You can search your
notes, or scan in entire articles or books. From that text base,
you then are able to search in a number of ways, including linked
terms. For example, if you tell Orbis once that hail, sleet,
snow, rain, thunder... are linked as 'weather', a 'weather'
search will find all occurrences of each of the list, and keep
track of where the entries were found in up to 16 subdirectories.

There's one catch: Ibid, Orbis, and Lingua (the 2000+ characters)
work only with Nota Bene. That's not a downside in the long term,
since for scholarly work Nota Bene is far superior to
business-oriented WP, Word, and the like, but it means some
outlay of money.


I use Latex .bib files, which are a pain to set up but great when
you get going.

If you have a Mac, I hear that EndNote is very good.
I haven't used it, though, since I pretty much only use UNIX,
on which there isn't anything very good. Most UNIX people
I think are using BibTeX.

I used to do a lot on Apple Macintoshes, typically using
Microsoft Word (and sometimes, WordPerfect) for writing. I found
most of the then-available bibliographic software inadequate and
built stuff of my own using HyperCard to manage references, add
keywords and other annotations, and build bibliographies for
particular articles, etc.
Now, I do most of my work on unix systems and use Latex for
technical writing/document preparation. I keep my bibliographic
stuff with Bibtex, which is an associated format. [By the way,
there's a mailing list / group for linguist users of Latex (and
Tex -- the system latex is built on), I have the address around
here, somewhere if you'd like.]
Latex and Bibtex software is widely available on Macs, PCs, most
unix systems, often as freeware or shareware. They're fairly
flexible, and there are increasing numbers of tools (browsers,
viewers and the like) available. The tools are a good thing,
because the basic "interface" is text. A typical entry looks
like this:

 author = "Noam Chomsky",
 title = "Explaining Language Use",
 journal = "Philosophical Topics",
 volume = 20,
 number = 1,
 year = "1992",
 annote = "Only paper of interest in a special number devoted
 to the philosophy of Hillary Putnam. Putnam
 replies (unconvincingly) pp. 379--385".}

I use GNU emacs for editing and it has a mode for dealing with
Bibtex files. At the end of this message I've put the "Help
page" for emacs' bibtex mode -- it should give you a flavour of
the kind of automated support, checking, and options possible
with Bibtex.


I am aware of two reviews of the major bibliographic software:

1) By Sue Stigleman (, who offered it in the
SCHOLAR issue of February of this year (Item CZS07 00). It
reviews Pro-Cite, EndNote (Plus), Papyrus and Reference Manager.
It can be obtained directly from her (or I can forward it to you

2) By PC Magazine, in the Oct. 12, 1993 issue (I haven't read it
yet). Your library or computer center may have back issues of
this magazine. This information was passed on to me by Barbara

I'm also just remembering a review in PC Week not too long ago,
maybe early this year? ... they reviewed all the biggies, and


OK, here's what I found:

ZiffNet Reviews Index

 Pub. Date: 10/12/1993
 Magazine: PC Magazine
 1 EndNote Plus for DOS 1.1 from Niles & Associates Inc.
 2 Library Master for DOS 2.02 from Balboa Software
 3 Papyrus for DOS 7.07 from Research Software Design
 4 Point of reference.
 5 Pro-Cite for DOS 2.1 from Personal Bibliographic
 Software Inc.)
 6 Reference Manager for DOS 5.06, rofessional Edition for
 Windows 5.5


I wrote to the publishers of Pro-Cite, EndNote, and Papyrus, the
three publishers for whom I had e-mail addresses. I received
replies from the publishers of EndNote (Niles & Associates) and
ProCite (Personal Bibliographic software) (the latter announced
that my own college was seriously looking into their product, a
fact I didn't know, and offered to send me materials and a sample
program). I enclose those letters here. Jon Aske



Dear Jon,

Thank you for your interest in EndNote Plus. Please find the
information you requested below.

This file describes two of our products: EndNote and EndNote
Plus. EndNote is the less expensive, simplified version of our
bibliographic database manager; EndNote Plus is the enhanced
version offering more powerful features and flexibility.

-------------------- ENDNOTE -----------------------
EndNote is a reference database and bibliography maker that
automates two tasks: Storing references and creating
bibliographies. You can store up to 32,000 references in an
EndNote database.

Data is entered into an EndNote record by filling out a simple
template that has the proper fields displayed for a given
reference type. EndNote has 15 defined reference types including
journal article, book, book section, and conference proceedings.
You can edit the reference types to add fields of your own, such
as a personal notes field or abstract. You can also rename any
of the existing reference types and create your own.

EndNote searching is fast and simple so that you can locate the
references you need quickly. You can search on the Author name,
Year, or any text in a record. EndNote will display your search
results in a few seconds.

On both the PC and Macintosh you can have access to a database
while you write so you can copy references from your database and
then paste them into your text. After writing you select a
bibliographic style (e.g. MLA, APA) and tell EndNote to "format"
your document. EndNote scans the paper, finds the citations you
pasted, and adds a formatted bibliography to the end of your
paper. EndNote reformats the in-text citations as well as the
bibliography in one step so you don't have to merge separate
documents. In addition, EndNote creates a duplicate of your
paper in the chosen style so that you can continue to reformat
your original paper in different styles without having to retype

EndNote comes with nine predefined styles and you can easily
create an unlimited number of your own styles. You simply create
a template that displays the reference fields in the proper order
for your style [for example: Author (Year). Title, Volume...]
The nine supplied styles are APA, MLA, JACS, Chicago, Vancouver,
Science, Nature, Author-Date, and Numbered.

Both EndNote and EndNote Plus are directly compatible with the
Mac word processors: Microsoft Word (versions 3 - 5.1),
WordPerfect 1-3, WriteNow 2-3, MacWrite II, Nisus and FrameMaker.
Support for other word processors is provided through translation
to any of these formats, or the RTF Interchange format. On the
PC, EndNote is compatible with WordPerfect 4 and 5 and Microsoft
Word for DOS through the RTF Interchange format. EndNote Plus is
also compatible with WordPerfect for Windows and Word for

EndNote databases are directly compatible across DOS and
Macintosh platforms and do not require any special conversion
procedures. Because of this, EndNote can be used in a mixed
platform network environment. EndNote files must be locked to set
to be "read only" in order for multiple users to access the same
file at the same time.

------------------ ENDNOTE PLUS ---------------------
EndNote Plus is our enhanced reference database and bibliography
maker. It offers all of the features of EndNote, described above,
plus the following:

With EndNote Plus, searching is fast and efficient so that you
can locate the references you need quickly. You can create
unlimited length search strings using the boolean connectives
AND, OR and NOT. With the QuickFind feature EndNote Plus will
display your search results almost instantaneously even if your
database has over 10,000 records in it. You can also search on
all fields in a database or any specific field such as Keywords,
Abstract, and even Record Number. [In regular EndNote searching
is limited to Author, Year, and/or Text (i.e. all of the text in
the references).

EndNote Plus can also sort any database on any fields you choose
such as Year, Journal, Title, or Label. You can sort on up to
five fields in either ascending or descending order. You can
also specify a custom sort order for a bibliographic style and
for multiple in-text citations. [In regular EndNote, sorting is
only available for the bibliography in your papers; they may be
sorted either by the citations' order of appearance, or author +
title, or by author + year + title.]

EndNote Plus's Journal Abbreviations table allows you to store up
to three different abbreviations for each journal name. Your
bibliographic styles can use any one of the three abbreviations
or the full journal name when formatting. You can also choose a
journal name from the Journal Abbreviations list when you are
entering data. In this way, your journal names can be entered
automatically, consistently, and accurately.

Those of you who import large numbers of records will be pleased
to know that EndNote Plus can find duplicate records. EndNote
Plus can display entries with identical author, year and title
fields, and allows you to inspect them before deleting any

People who use Microsoft Word 5 for the Macintosh will be able to
use the EndNote Plus Plug-In Module that integrates EndNote Plus
seamlessly into Word 5. The module allows you to access your
database and format bibliographies without ever having to leave
Word. [See the related file "EndNote Plus Module for Word (Mac)"
in this section.]

EndNote Plus for DOS can be run under Windows 3.0 or 3.1 to
format bibliographies in Microsoft Word and WordPerfect for
Windows. EndNote Plus can access the Windows clipboard so
transferring information to your word processor is very easy.
DOS users of WordPerfect can access their database from within
the word processor with a TSR. EndNote Plus can also recognize
citations in WordPerfect footnotes.

List Price: EndNote is $149; EndNote Plus is $249.
Local bookstores and mail order companies may have discounted

If you have any questions please let us know.

Niles & Associates
800 Jones Street
Berkeley, CA 94710

phone: 510-559-8592
fax: 510-559-8683


Dear Mr. Aske,

In response to your email requesting Pro-Cite information: we
have sample programs and product literature which I would be
happy to send you [...].

As a quick overview, we currently have Pro-Cite and Biblio-Links
available in Mac and DOS versions, with a Windows version of
Pro-Cite due out this fall. We have single user and network
versions of Pro-Cite. The Biblio-Links are companion programs
that are used to transfer records from Online and CD-ROM
information services, directly into Pro-Cite. Pro-Cite is able
to work with custom character sets and non-English characters.

In terms of pricing, it would be best not to post our US prices
on the worldwide mailing list, since we have dealers in many
countries who have different pricing schedules based on
import/custom tariffs and VAT taxes. I will send you our
standard price list, but need to qualify it by saying that we do
have educational and governmental discounts available in the US,
so that pricing can vary quite a bit, depending on the field of
the end user.

Hopefully, the package I'm sending will provide all the
information you need. If you have technical questions, we do
have a tech support dept. you can reach by phone (313-996-1580)
or email <>. If you need any more general
information, please contact me at the main number (above) or at

Thank you,
Ken Raynor
Educational Accounts

Jon Aske Home address:
Anthropology "Aritza Enea"
Bates College 12 Bardwell St.
Lewiston, Maine 04240, USA Lewiston, Maine 04240-6336
e-mail: -Phone/Fax: (207) 786-0589
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