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Date: 28-Oct-2008 From: Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy <andrew.carstairs-mccarthycanterbury.ac.nz> Subject: Javanese Ngoko-Krama Resemblances E-mail this message to a friend
Javanese has two vocabularies of open-class items: Ngoko (for use among social equals) and Krama or Krômô (for use when speaking to a social superior). Many Ngoko-Krama pairs bear no phonological resemblance to each other. On the other hand, some Ngoko-Krama pairs are similar in one of several ways listed by Soepomo Poedjosoedarmo in 'Javanese speech levels' page 64-6 (Indonesia, Vol. 6 (Oct. 1968), pp. 54-81).
Poedjosoedarmo comments: 'The exact rules for the formation of the predictable Krômô forms are quite complicated and further research will need to be done before they can be formulated adequately.'
Can anyone tell me of more recent publications on this matter, in European languages? (Regrettably I cannot read Javanese or Indonesian.) I will post a summary.