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|Subject:||Modern Bibliography: 'ser' vs. 'estar' in Old Spanish|
|Question:||Hello. I'd like to know if you can recommend me some new books or articles about the origin of the difference in verbs ''ser'' and ''estar'' in Spanish. I know that the difference is present also in Portuguese (and ''gallego''), so I think that maybe the roots of this is in a big branch that includes the ''galaico-portugués'' and the ''leonés'' (which I've read is the basis of Spanish - ''castellano''-). According to Ricardo Carballo Calero, Portuguese and Spanish were originated as dialects of ''gallego'' and ''leonés'' respectively, which, in time, were originated from a ''protorromance galaico''. If his hypothesis were true, does it mean that the beginning of our structure ser-estar started in this ''protorromance galaico''? Thank you for your help and sorry for the Spanish words I haven't translated into English (I didn't know how to do it). Roberto García Perú|
|Reply:||Hi, Roberto, I know little about Portuguese (though I can read it). However, one would have to investigate (using big historical corpora) the *Portuguese* history of ser/estar. Any current differences between Spanish and Portuguese uses could well be due to changes *since* the separation of the predecessors of Spanish & Portuguese, in which case we *would* have to go back to what Carballo calls 'galaico' to trace the history of ser & estar. There almost certainly are such differences in some areas between Sp. & Port., but I just don't know if ser/estar is one of them. In the opposite case, where the two languages separated and only later developed their respective differences between ser & estar (which may not be the case), then we would need to trace the history further back, perhaps even taking into consideration the facts of French &/or Italian & possibly other Romance languages (especially Catalán, etc.). Other Panel members know more about Romance than I do, and may be able to answer your question better. Likewise, Wikipedia may have some useful information (although I didn't find much in the Spanish version). You might also try just Googling "ser y estar" or other variants. Good luck. Jim James L. Fidelholtz Graduate Program in Language Sciences Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades Benem'erita Universidad Aut'onoma de Puebla, M'EXICO|
|Reply From:||James L Fidelholtz click here to access email|